After more than 20 years of EU cooperation with Brazil, bilateral cooperation is coming to an end. Due to its economic performance, Brazil is considered as a “graduated” country and therefore it is not eligible for bilateral cooperation under the financial exercise 2014-2020. Brazil will remain eligible to participate in regional and thematic programmes. This provides an excellent opportunity to re-define together new forms of EU-Brazil cooperation.
A sum of €234 million was allocated to Bolivia 2007-13 for cooperation activities under the Development Cooperation Instrument (DCI).
The areas of cooperation detailed in the Country Strategy Paper 2007-13 are:
Due to its economic performance, Argentina is considered as a “graduated” country and therefore it is not eligible for bilateral cooperation under the next financial exercise 2014-2020. Argentina will remain eligible to participate in regional and thematic programmes. This provides an excellent opportunity to re-define together new forms of EU-Argentina cooperation.
The EU allocated €65 million to Argentina 2007-13 under the Development Cooperation Instrument (DCI).
Set out in the Country Strategy Paper for Vanuatu (2008-13) and a multi-annual indicative programme, the main priority of the €23.2 million budget under the 10thEuropean Development Fund (2008-13) is to boost economic growth and to create jobs through human resources development – especially vocational training.
Out of this sum, €4.4 million is earmarked for priority sectors: water and sanitation, waste management and renewable energy. Additional assistance supports non-state actors and addresses trade-related issues.
The Kingdom of Tonga is an archipelago of more than 170 islands in the South Pacific. It is highly dependent on a developing tourism industry, agriculture, forestry and fishing. With only modest rates of growth, Tonga’s economy is fragile. However, its social indicators, such as health and education, have steadily improved and the nation is now well on its way to achieving the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) targets by 2015.
The Solomon Islands are located east of Papua New Guinea and are made up of over 990 islands with a total land area of 27,990 km and an ocean area within an exclusive economic zone of 1.34m km2. The estimate of the population is around 482,000 (2006). The Solomon Islands has a recent history of conflict that broke out in the period of the "tensions" in 1999-2003 and in the riots in April 2006. A weak democratic system compounded by endemic corruption and a youthful population that is poorly educated and lacks economic opportunities are the causes of this fragility.
Samoa is a group of islands in the Pacific Ocean. It has enjoyed political stability since becoming the first island country in the South Pacific to gain independence in 1962. Despite the country growth was severely affected by 2009 Tsunami and the more recent Cyclone Evans of 2012, Samoa has one of the best managed economies in the Pacific region.
The Country Strategy Paper for Papua New Guinea (2008-13) and a multi-annual indicative programme detail the priorities for the €142.3 million allocation under the 10thEuropean Development Fund (EDF). An increase in income-generating activities in rural areas is a priority.
EU assistance is hence supporting human resource development, in particular basic and adult education and vocational training.
Palau has already made significant progress in reaching the targets of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Health, education and other public utilities are well developed and freely provided by the government.
The Country Strategy Paper for Nauru (2008-13) and a multi-annual indicative programme detail the priorities for a €2.9 million funding allocation under the 10thEuropean Development Fund (EDF). These are: an increased supply of energy from renewable sources and improved access to safe drinking water.
The Federated States of Micronesia are situated in the western Pacific Ocean and consist of many volcanic islands and coral atolls scattered over some 3 million km² of ocean. Despite economic activities, such as fisheries, retail and the provision of government services, they are heavily dependent on external funding. Their remoteness affects their ability to compete in global markets. The outer islands have particularly poor health indicators.
The Republic of the Marshall Islands comprises several islands and atolls – many uninhabited – scattered across hundreds of miles in the central Pacific between Hawaii and Papua New Guinea. The total land area of about 170 km² has few accessible natural resources for 56,000 inhabitants.
The development challenges faced are: vast distances, limited resources, population growth and an inadequate provision of education. EU assistance targets the water and energy sectors.
Fiji is a Pacific Island nation made up of more than 300 islands lying on the border between Polynesia and Melanesia. Its economy relies mainly on the sugar and tourism industries.
The Country Strategy Paper for Timor-Leste (2008-13) (also known as East Timor) and a multi-annual indicative programme set out the priority areas for €81 million of spending under the 10th European Development Fund: sustainable development, health and institutional capacity building. An additional €1.1 million covers unforeseen needs.
The EU’s cooperation priorities in Kyrgyzstan are guided by the government’s new development strategy (2012-14): improved governance, wider reforms in education, better social protection and a more productive agricultural sector.
A joint country support strategy – implemented by the government since 2007 – provides a framework within which donors, including the EU, can coordinate their assistance to Kyrgyzstan.
Kiribati is one of the least-developed small-island states in the Pacific. Its low-lying atolls are extremely vulnerable to the effects of climate change, such as coastal flooding.
EU support has been important to Kazakhstan’s development since the country’s independence in 1991. Projects funded include: implementation of radical socio-economic reforms and the fostering of people-to-people contacts.
Kazakhstan still needs technical expertise in spite of having significant resources which enable it to finance more of its own development. EU funds are mostly allocated for policy advice and technical assistance – based on European experience and best international practices – to various state bodies.
The Cook Islands comprises 15 small islands scattered over some 2 million km² of the South Pacific Ocean. Poverty levels are amongst the lowest in the region and its development indicators are mostly good, keeping the country well on track to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by 2015.
The Cook Islands' isolation from foreign markets, a lack of natural resources, dispersed populations, inadequate infrastructure and a vulnerability to natural disasters, all hinder economic development.
Maldives has unique development problems. Its population of over a quarter of a million is dispersed over hundreds of low-lying islands. The very survival of these territories is threatened by rising sea levels, linked to the phenomenon of global warming.
EU cooperation recognises the importance of development support to prevent the country from disappearing as the first and most visible victim of climate change.
EU cooperation 2007-13