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About the IRD

The Institute of Research for Development (IRD) is a French research organisation, original and unique on the European development research scene. Emphasizing interdisciplinarity, the IRD has focused its research for over 65 years on the relationship between man and its environment, in Africa, Mediterranean, Latin America, Asia and the French tropical overseas territories. Its research, training and innovation activities are intended to contribute to the social, economic and cultural development of southern countries.

Institut de recherche pour le développement was created in 1944. It is a non-profit government-funded public organisation whose general missions are to conduct research and training with a view to promoting economic, social and cultural development in the Southern Countries. Research performed at IRD covers a wide range of disciplines, with a special focus on the relationship between man and his environment in Southern countries. The aim of IRD is to respond to the major development challenges relating to societies and human health, the earth, the environment and living resources, and to bring the benefits of research to sustainable development to improve people’s lives.

IRD promotes Joint Research Units (Unité Mixte de Recherche-UMR) with Universities. The main unit involved in the project is the UMR-225 DIAL (“Développement, Institutions, et Mondialisation” ; a Joint Research Unit between IRD and the University Paris-Dauphine (UPD), created in 2010, and including 12 fulltime researchers from IRD (for Dauphine, see infra). IRD-DIAL works on poverty, household living conditions, development economics (education, labour market and informal sector), governance, migration, and international trade in relation to poverty and inequality. It has experience in West Africa, Madagascar, Latin America and South-East Asia. IRD-DIAL is based in Paris, France but also in Senegal and in Vietnam. IRD-DIAL has built, led and disseminated the well-known 1-2-3 household surveys on poverty, providing in particular new information on informal work and the living standards of households. DIAL also publishes working papers and is associated with INSEE for the publication of STATECO, a review specialised in statistical issues in developing countries. DIAL frequently organises international symposium, most recently on the informal sector in Hanoi in May 2010 and on the impacts of shocks in developing countries in Paris in mid-2011.


DIAL researchers have numerous past and ongoing research programmes on household living standards (Senegal, Madagascar, Peru, etc.), the labour market and the informal sector (Vietnam, West African countries, etc.) and governance (Africa). It has sound experience in data collection, especially in sub-Saharan countries, Vietnam and Peru. DIAL researchers participate in international and national fora on the informal sector (Delhi Group, PASSEIA in Africa, etc.) and the definition of poverty (Andstat, Medstat, etc.). DIAL has also worked and published on the relevant topics especially on the debt and aid issues.

Key IRD-DIAL staff members

oudinXavier Oudin is NOPOOR scientific co-coordinator. He has a PhD in economics and is graduated from the Political Studies Institute of Paris (Sciences-Po). He has worked on the informal sector in West Africa and South-East Asia. His research now focuses on demographic transition and its impact on the labour markets and poverty.


François Roubaud is a senior researcher at IRD (economics and statistics). He was one of the pioneers of the mixed household/enterprise surveys to measure the informal sector (1-2-3 surveys) and grafting "governance and democracy" modules onto official household surveys. His economic research focuses on the labour market and the informal economy, policy evaluation and the political economy of development policies.

Javier Herrera is a senior researcher at IRD. His research focuses on poverty and its measurement, especially through original surveys. He has worked in Africa and now is involved in Peru and other Latin American countries where he participates in the definition of the poverty line, measurement of inequalities and informal sector and poverty policy. 

Lisa Chauvet (WP8 co-leader) is a Research Fellow at IRD. She focuses on foreign aid, international financing and the economics of civil war.

Flore Gubert is an economist at IRD. She is presently the director of DIAL. Her research focuses on the microeconomic analysis of household behaviour in developing countries. Fields of work include impact analysis of microfinance and migration, and rural poverty analysis.

Mireille Razafindrakoto is a senior researcher at IRD. Her work focuses on labour market, poverty and inequality issues (monitoring and evaluation, the voice of the poor, the many facets of poverty), but also on governance issue (role of the State, the links between public institutions, the society’s value system and the population’s living conditions). As an economist and statistician, she was posted on a long term assignment and did field work in Madagascar (1994-1999) and in Vietnam (2006-2011).

Anne-Sophie Robilliard is a Research Fellow at IRD (Institut de Recherche pour le Développement) and a member of DIAL (a joint research unit of IRD and Université Paris-Dauphine). She holds a PhD from Université de Paris 1- Pantheon Sorbonne. She has worked extensively on the development and use of macro-micro tools for the analysis of the impact of policies on poverty and income distribution. She is currently based in Dakar (Senegal) where she leads a research project on the links between economic and demographic trends in Africa.

Sandrine Mesplé-Somps is an economist at IRD. Most of her research is applied to Africa. She has published papers on poverty and inequality in Africa, on the economic impact of migration and remittances in host countries and on the dynamic of Poverty in Peru.

Christophe Jalil Nordman is an economist at IRD. His research focuses on the functioning of labour markets in developing countries. Fields of work include earnings inequalities, human capital and social network formation and the measurement of employment vulnerability in West and North Africa, Madagascar and Vietnam.

Laure Pasquier-Doumer is an economist at IRD. Her research focuses on the analysis of social mobility and equality of opportunity, in the fields of education and labour markets. She currently participates to impact analysis of urban development programs and shocks on the labour markets.

    Relevant references

Chauvet L., Collier P., 2009, “Elections and economic policy in developing countries“, Economic Policy 24(59), June 2009.

Chauvet L., Gubert F., Mesplé-Somps S., 2010, "Are Remittances More Effective Than Aid To Improve Child Health? An Empirical Assessment using Inter and Intra-Country Data", in Lin J.Y. and Pleskovic B. (eds), People, Politics and Globalisation, ABCDE 2009, The World Bank, Washington D.C., 2010.

De Vreyer P., Gubert F., Robilliard, A.S., 2011, « Are there returns to migration experience? An empirical analysis using data on return migrants and non-migrants in West Africa », forthcoming in Annales d'Economie et de Statistique, n°97-98

De Vreyer P., Gubert F., Roubaud F., 2010, “Migration, Self-selection and Returns to Education in WAEMU”, Journal of African Economies, 19(1), pp. 52-87 (2010)

Gastineau B., Gubert F., Robilliard A.-S., Roubaud F., 2010, Madagascar face au défi des objectifs du millénaire pour le développement. Collection : Objectifs Suds, IRD Editions

Herrera J., Razafindrakoto M., Roubaud F., 2006, Gouvernance, démocratie et lutte contre la pauvreté, Ministère des Affaires étrangères, Série « Études »

Nordman, C.J., Robilliard A.-S. & Roubaud F., 2011, « Gender and ethnic earnings gaps in seven West African cities », Labour Economics, doi:10.1016/j.labeco.2011.09.003.

Oudin X. 2009 – “Household Structure and Employment Strategies in a Changing Economy”. In Barbieri (M.) and Bélanger (D.), Reconfiguring Families in Contemporary Vietnam. Stanford University Press, Palo Alto, Ca.

Pasquier-Doumer L., 2011, « Intergenerational transmission of self-employed status in the informal sector: a constrained choice or better income prospects? Evidence from seven West-African countries », Journal of African Economies, forthcoming

Razafindrakoto M., Roubaud F. (2010), “Are international databases on corruption reliable? A comparison of expert opinion surveys and household surveys in sub-Saharan Africa”, World development, August, 38(8), 1057-1069.